CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES (CVDs) are the diseases which affects the heart and the blood vessels. CVDs (Myocardial infarction and Angina pectoris) are the major health problems in developing countries and are considered amongst most the common medical problems in general population.
Most of the researches reveal that for the people who reach the age of 40 (49% men & 32% women) show clinical signs of heart disease.
CVDs are most commonly caused due to hardened arteries atherosclerosis). This condition makes it hard for the blood to flow smoothly to the heart. This puts you at a greater risk of heart attack and strokes.
GINGIVITIS associated with extensive plaque and calculus deposits are most prevalent, extensive and severe in developing countries. Gingivitis which progress to periodontitis/ periodontal disease, thus may account for significant portion of proposed infection associated risk for cardiovascular diseases. The mild form of periodontal disease is shown to affect about 75% of adults.
In periodontal disease there is swelling of the gums and this allows bacteria like streptococcus sanguis and their toxins to spread below the gum line and then enter the blood stream and trigger inflammation of the arteries supplying the heart. The entry of the bacteria into gums can take place during normal chewing brushing or during any dental procedures like extractions.
FIRST theory states that mouth bacteria attach to fatty deposits in arteries and trigger blood clots
SECOND theory states that bacteria are a source of inflammation which leads to thickening of artery walls.
Thus gum disease is a risk factor for diseases of the blood vessels and arteries and the people with gum disease (Periodontitis) had a higher risk (25% more likely) of stroke and there is a direct link between clogged arteries in the heart gum diseases.
Given the link between periodontal disease and heart health, it is important for the patients to go for effective treatment.
Also for a healthy heart, all the risk factors including gum diseases have to be cleared along with a healthy diet, exercises and quitting the habits like smoking and drinking alcohol.